# Attribute Control Charts

Attribute Control Charts are a set of control charts specifically designed for tracking defects (also called non-conformities). These types of defects are binary in nature (yes/no), where a part has one or more defects, or it doesn’t. Examples of defects are paint scratches, discolorations, breaks in the weave of a textile, dents, cuts, etc. Think of the last car that you bought. The defects in each sample group are counted and run through some statistical calculations. Depending on the type of Attribute Control Chart, the number of defective parts are tracked (p-chart and np-chart), or alternatively, the number of defects are tracked (u-chart, c-chart). The difference in terminology “number of defective parts” and “number of defects” is highly significant, since a single part not only can have multiple defect categories (scratch, color, dent, etc), it can also have multiple defects per category. A single part may have 0 – N defects. So keeping track of the number of defective parts is statistically different from keeping track of the number of defects. This affects the way the control limits for each chart are calculated.

### p-Charts

The p-Chart, also known as the Percent or Fraction Defective Parts Chart, is the most common of the Attribute Control Charts. For a sample subgroup, the number of defective parts is measured and plotted as either a percentage of the total subgroup sample size, or a fraction of the total subgroup sample size. Since the plotted value is a fraction or percent of the sample subgroup size, the size of the sample group can vary without rendering the chart useless. The p-Chart chart can also be used if the sample subgroup size varies from sampling interval to sampling interval. In this case, the control chart high and low limits vary from sample interval to sample interval, depending on the number of samples in the associated sample subgroup. A low number of samples in the sample subgroup make the band between the high and low limits wider than if a higher number of samples are available. Both the Fraction Defective Parts and Percent Defective Parts control charts come in versions that support variable sample sized for a subgroup.p-Charts

### np-Chart

The np=Chart is also known as the Number Defective Parts, and Number Non-Conforming Parts Chart For a sample subgroup, the number of defective parts is measured and plotted as a simple count. Statistically, in order to compare number of defective parts for one subgroup with the other subgroups, this type of chart requires that the subgroup sample size is fixed across all subgroups. np-Chart

### c-Chart

The c-Chart is also known as the Number of Defects or Number of Non-Conformities Chart. For a sample subgroup, the number of times a defect occurs is measured and plotted as a simple count. Statistically, in order to compare number of defects for one subgroup with the other subgroups, this type of chart requires that the subgroup sample size is fixed across all subgroups. c-Chart

### u-Chart

The u-Chart is also known as the Number of Defects per Unit or Number of NonConformities per Unit Chart. For a sample subgroup, the number of times a defect occurs is measured and plotted as either a percentage of the total subgroup sample size, or a fraction of the total subgroup sample size. Since the plotted value is a fraction or percent of the sample subgroup size, the size of the sample group can vary without rendering the chart useless. The u-Chart chart can also be used if the sample subgroup size varies from sampling interval to sampling interval. In this case, the control chart high and low limits vary from sample interval to sample interval, depending on the number of samples in the associated sample subgroup. A low number of samples in the sample subgroup make the band between the high and low limits wider than if a higher number of samples are available. u-Chart

# DPMO-Chart

The DPMO-Chart is also referred to as the Number Defects per Million chart. For a sample subgroup, the number of times a defect occurs is measured and plotted as a value normalized to defects per million. Since the plotted value is normalized to a fixed sample subgroup size, the size of the sample group can vary without rendering the chart useless. DPMO-Chart